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CYANOBACTERIA !

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CYANOBACTERIA !

Post by Admin on Sun Apr 17, 2011 12:05 am

CYANOBACTERIA
Spring-Algal-bloom-Nemesis
by Mio/Chichi
As the Title implies - this photosynthetic uni along with colonial, and filamentous species although referred to as "Blue/Green" Algae is in reality a Gram Negative Bacteria (structurally similar a prokaryote to every other gn bacteria which lack membrane bound Organelles ) ie nucleus , mitochondria, etc http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Prokaryote differentiated only by it's size along with it's ability to photosynthesize, CB being much larger a bacteria than regualr GN cells.

Gram N Bacteria exhibit many unique properties, a notable one of which being the outer leaflet of the membrane comprising a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid portion acts as an endotoxin.


Cyanobacteria abound both terrestrially and aquatically earth-wide and are major O2 contributors /Nitrogen fixators, hence their ability to proliferate exponentially in nutrient rich environments, the World's waterways, lakes and most annoyingly of all, our pristine garden swimming pools and Ornamental Ponds!

Unlike Eukaryotic "Green" Algas and Diatoms, Cyanobacteria thrive in conditions much less compatible to it`s competitors proliferation and can therefore "seize" the opportunity to take a foothold . It requires less light, D.O etc and is unperturbed by high temperatures or high Ammonias.

Once established, by-product Metabolites (allelochemichals) are released as a means of local Biological control (i.e. allelogen, pheromone or kairomone ) or indeed Warfare which brings me timely to the subject of AVOCS ? what are they ! and what prompted my interest ?

Algal-Volatile-Organic-Compounds are believed to be responsible for the foul smelling odours and subsequent taste/flavour of drinking water tainted by these substances, which instinctively deters us from consuming such.

Terpenoids and sulphides are perhaps the most important AVOC`s produced by cyanobacteria.

Three groups of chemicals are major contributors to aquatic odour phenomena and these include
terpenes, eg (geosmin , MIB non toxic to Humans) fatty acids PUFA (FAs) and their derivatives and sulphur compounds



AVOC`s, previously deemed to be Algal metabolites related to biological cell waste processes are now known to be biologically active in Grazer defense mechanisms (released upon attack by predators) and in the case of FA derivatives have cytotoxic capabilities.



Does your Pond emit a "freshly mown lawn" odour during peak sunlight hours (Green Alga`s are the most likely culprit) or smell like the local Fishmongers ?

Gazing out of my landing window yesterday I was greeted with this (see pics) the dreaded Cyanobacteria Spring Algal Bloom .






Approaching the Pond, the foul fishy odour emission confirmed my suspicion and a sample of the accumulated bloom which had collected in the centre surface of the Shade net identified the species as possibly "Anabaena" .

Not many present a Problem though , in fact Cyanobactor`s most Famous "Super-Food" Miracle cure is the Beautiful Spirulina .










http://www.denniskunkel.com/DK/Bacteria/99172B.html

Article resource references
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/21267/cyanobacterial_and_eukaryotic_algal_odour_compounds_signals_or_by_products/index.html






Last edited by Admin on Tue May 31, 2011 1:07 am; edited 3 times in total

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Re: CYANOBACTERIA !

Post by AL on Thu Apr 28, 2011 2:48 am

Great read there Chi Chi i did need the dictionary a couple of times though( well more than a couple ) but I got there in the end.

In my defence i am better at building things than writing about them. Rolling Eyes

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Re: CYANOBACTERIA !

Post by Admin on Tue May 31, 2011 1:09 am

Admin wrote: CYANOBACTERIA
Spring-Algal-bloom-Nemesis
by Mio/Chichi
As the Title implies - this photosynthetic uni along with colonial, and filamentous species although referred to as "Blue/Green" Algae is in reality a Gram Negative Bacteria (structurally similar a prokaryote to every other gn bacteria which lack membrane bound Organelles ) ie nucleus , mitochondria, etc http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Prokaryote differentiated only by it's size along with it's ability to photosynthesize, CB being much larger a bacteria than regualr GN cells.

Gram N Bacteria exhibit many unique properties, a notable one of which being the outer leaflet of the membrane comprising a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid portion acts as an endotoxin.


Cyanobacteria abound both terrestrially and aquatically earth-wide and are major O2 contributors /Nitrogen fixators, hence their ability to proliferate exponentially in nutrient rich environments, the World's waterways, lakes and most annoyingly of all, our pristine garden swimming pools and Ornamental Ponds!

Unlike Eukaryotic "Green" Algas and Diatoms, Cyanobacteria thrive in conditions much less compatible to it`s competitors proliferation and can therefore "seize" the opportunity to take a foothold . It requires less light, D.O etc and is unperturbed by high temperatures or high Ammonias.

Once established, by-product Metabolites (allelochemichals) are released as a means of local Biological control (i.e. allelogen, pheromone or kairomone ) or indeed Warfare which brings me timely to the subject of AVOCS ? what are they ! and what prompted my interest ?

Algal-Volatile-Organic-Compounds are believed to be responsible for the foul smelling odours and subsequent taste/flavour of drinking water tainted by these substances, which instinctively deters us from consuming such.

Terpenoids and sulphides are perhaps the most important AVOC`s produced by cyanobacteria.

Three groups of chemicals are major contributors to aquatic odour phenomena and these include
terpenes, eg (geosmin , MIB non toxic to Humans) fatty acids PUFA (FAs) and their derivatives and sulphur compounds



AVOC`s, previously deemed to be Algal metabolites related to biological cell waste processes are now known to be biologically active in Grazer defense mechanisms (released upon attack by predators) and in the case of FA derivatives have cytotoxic capabilities.



Does your Pond emit a "freshly mown lawn" odour during peak sunlight hours (Green Alga`s are the most likely culprit) or smell like the local Fishmongers ?

Gazing out of my landing window yesterday I was greeted with this (see pics) the dreaded Cyanobacteria Spring Algal Bloom .






Approaching the Pond, the foul fishy odour emission confirmed my suspicion and a sample of the accumulated bloom which had collected in the centre surface of the Shade net identified the species as possibly "Anabaena" .

Not many present a Problem though , in fact Cyanobactor`s most Famous "Super-Food" Miracle cure is the Beautiful Spirulina .










http://www.denniskunkel.com/DK/Bacteria/99172B.html

Article resource references
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/21267/cyanobacterial_and_eukaryotic_algal_odour_compounds_signals_or_by_products/index.html





Edited to include more "Filamentous Algae" image samples.

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Re: CYANOBACTERIA !

Post by DaveB on Mon Jun 06, 2011 11:55 pm

Interesting reading. Is there any evidence to suggest that these bacteria completely die off at lower temps or lie dormant as other bacteria do. It is my understanding that green algea release spores which lie dormant at colder temperatures only to become active as things warm up again. After recently running my pond throughout winter down to 6 deg C. I currently do not have blankeweed not even a slight green fuzz. The pond sides look almost new.Perhaps at this temp spores, bacteria died off completely if this is possible???
Best Regards Dave
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Re: CYANOBACTERIA !

Post by Admin on Tue Jun 07, 2011 1:35 am

Hi Dave... Smile

It Depends upon which Species are in situ.

Generally there are a half dozen or so common eucaryotic (Green Algas) present both Planktonic (suspended such as Volvox) and Filamentous Cladophora/Spirogyra for example.

Cyanobacteria (Prokaryotic) Blue/Green Algae are always present in one form or another and proliferate at the slightest provocation (temp/nutrient increase) prior to their competitors for the reasons outlined in my Article above.

Spore Formation is as you mention a survival mechanism in times of crisis such as Winter protecting the Organism until conditions once again become conducive for survival.

Many will die off but sufficient cells remain to re-infect at the earliest opportunity Twisted Evil

Lack of Minerals Nitrogen and phosphorous in your case combined with ravenous Koi who would have stripped both Pond walls and bottom bare are likely the reasons you have a new look pond.

Enjoy it while it lasts Sweetie Wink


http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/tharrison/emigration/cladophora.htm

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/bacteria/Anabaena_variabilis.html

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